Unit 7 Neuroscience Reading-1 Mind Wide Open
- Review the summary of this book review in three sentences.
is a book written by Steven Johnson who writes books and columns in various magazines in a fun-to-read style.
In this book, explains what our mind is like and how it works through his own test experience in reading other’s mind, fears and what’s going on in our mind.
gives you fascinating insights into the world of mind that is hardly understood but by neuroscientists
- Comprehension-1 (P12-L91) what "If a lion could speak, we couldn't understand him." =>
Humans share both a perceptual, understanding something through senses, and a conceptual mechanism. We also behave in broadly similar ways 'universals'. Because we share all these things, we have a language in common.
A lion doesn't share any of this with us. We have no idea what the world looks like to a lion. Since, language depends on a common frame of reference, and humans and lions do not share a common frame of reference.
- Comprehension-2 (P10-L81 ~ P12-94) what our brain is like in 2~3 sentences/50 words.
There are so much more going on in our brain than we’ve known or we can imagine that it is amazing how our brain functions in such an organized way. Therefore, the more we learn the mechanism and function of the brain, the more confused we will be. (2 sentences/48 words)
- Study Words/Expressions/Grammar
[P1-L2] inscape the essential inner nature of a person, an object-> landscape [L3] MRI ( ) scan utilizes a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed images of the organs and tissues within the body. PET ( ) scan uses radiation, or nuclear medicine imaging, to produce 3D color images of the functional processes within the human body. [L5] apparatus [æpəˈrætəs/ˈreɪtəs] a group/combination of instruments, tools, materials for a particular function; equipment; fire-fighting ~ - systematic organization of activities, functions, processes for a specific goal; organization, system; digestive ~, government ~
[P2-L14] adrenaline [əˈdrɛnəlɪn] a hormone that is secreted by the adrenal medulla in response to stress and increases heart rate, pulse rate, and blood pressure, and raises the blood levels of glucose and lipids. [L15] a spike of an abrupt increase or rise; surge [L17] subroutine a section of a computer program that is stored only once but can be used when required at several different points in the program
[L17] on any given day, at any given moment -> in any given place [P3-L21] contributing editor a writer who regularly contributes articles to newspaper, magazine or online articles, but does not actually edit articles. Often a freelancer. [L25] ant heaps a group of things placed, thrown, or lying one on another; pile; a heap of stones/people [L27] sphere - a three-dimensional closed surface such that every point on the surface is equidistant from the center - particular field of activity; environment: that's out of my~ - globe
[P4-L34] module a self-contained unit or item which itself performs a defined task and can be linked with other such units to form a larger system, spacecraft module [P6-L38] take for granted; accept, believe, assume, presume [L42] by instinct - an inborn pattern of behavior that is characteristic of a species and is often a response to specific environmental stimuli: maternal ~ - a powerful motivation or impulse: ~ shopping/purchase - altruistic instincts in social animals. - an innate capability or aptitude: an ~ for diplomacy
[L44] devise to invent sth new or a new way to do sth; create, come up with, design; to ~ a method
[L46] distinctive; different, unique, original, special; ~ style/color/look -> distinct; apparent, obvious, specific; ~ smell/music/color -> distinguish recognize the difference between two; differentiate, divide, identify; ~ between A and B, ~ A from B [L49] an instant gut reaction [P7-L55] amygdala an almond-shaped part of brain that performs a primary role in the processing of memory, decision-making, and emotional reactions [L58] decode to convert an encoded message, text, digital data into ordinary language/sound/image; ~ encrypted message/password <-> encode [L60] dimmer<- dim (adj) not clear because lack of light; to ~ read (v) make/become dim [P8-L62] traumatic [trəˈmæt ɪk]; frightening/frightful <- trauma [trou-muh/AmE, traw-] a powerful shock that may have long-lasting effects [L62] trigger ; cause to happen; bring about, generate, set off
[L69] oxytocin [ɒksɪˈtoʊsən] a hormone that stimulates contraction of the smooth muscle of the uterus
serotonin [sɛr əˈtoʊnɪn] a neurotransmitter involved in sleep, depression, memory, and other neurological processes.
dopamine [doʊ pəˌmin] a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system to help regulate movement and emotion.
cortisol [ˈkɔrtəsɔl] one of several steroid hormones produced by the adrenal cortex and resembling cortisone
[L69] sojourn [ˈsoʊdʒɜrn] a temporary stay; layover, brief travel, stayover: during his ~ in Paris.
[P9-L75] preoccupations<- preoccupy to occupy beforehand or before others: Thoughts of failure ~ied me. He was too ~ied with his own thoughts. [P10-L84] brings it all alive [L85] sanest <-sane mentally sound, sensible, reasonable ->sanity, insane [P11-L88] instructive: informative, enlightening, useful
Chapter 3 #2 Interview with a food scientist about changes in eating habit
Preparing to Listen: Statistics about food and eating habit/p.22-23
The average annual house hold expenditure for food away from home is larger than the one at home.
=> how often you do you eat out with your friends? How much do you usually spend?
- 1st Listening Main Ideas and Details
- 2nd Listening by part
=> Part-1 Explain the Effects and Changes in eating habit.
=> Part-2 Explain what are predicted in the research
=> What do you think affected the most to people’s eating habit?
=> Speak your eating habit compared to the research explained by the food scientist.
- Review the Opinion Paragraph about the author’s decisions and experience of living without TV in five to eight sentences.
☆ Some drifted away from the task=> Plan in advance! Grammar errors=> Revise!
Makoto: 110w. Not written yr opinion on her decisions but mainly about yourself. Plan in advance. Grammar errors
Kaede: 75w. The author seems single. She just decided not to watch TV, not to disconnect herself from outside.
Tatsuya: 114w. Well organized and explained. #4 should be SS-2. SS-3 contradicts CS.
Ayu: 114w. Well organized and explained. #7 increase a quality of life=>
Shunsuke: 99w. Out of the assigned task (your opinion on her decisions/experience), not about your phone.
Sae: 80w. Well organized. #5, 6=> There are other … , such as … grammar errors.
Unit 5 Why do people help each other?
Preview the Unit- Listen to the p.89
- C-3. Who would you more likely to help?-> Do you or to whom do you usually give your seat on the train?
- D: Describe the situations. What situations have you ever helped people/person you don’t know? Were you alone?
Lesson 1: Reading #1 A Question of Numbers
- Vocabulary: apply - to put to practical use; utilize; employ: ~ economic sanctions - to be relevant, useful, or appropriate - to make a formal request: ~ for a job/passport, ~ to a company/college (and enrolled in college), ~ to join the army.
apply to : Special conditions ~ those who …, It ~s to all of you. New technology was ~ied to farming.
- Preview Reading: When do you think a person is more likely to help others?
What does the bystander effect mean?
- Listen/Q-Classroom-> MI/D => what the bystander effect is in 60 sec.
- Read-> Underline the topic sentences, check the sub topics and key supporting details that should be mentioned.
-> Check MI/D=> a summary of the news magazine article about the bystander effect in 60 sec.
- What do you think-2. five to eight sentences to respond the question:
In general, which people do you think are more helpful to strangers in need: people who live in cities or people who live in small towns? Why?