Unit 7 Neuroscience Reading-1 Mind Wide Open
- Check HW: Study Words/Expressions/Grammar
[P1-L2] inscape the essential inner nature of a person, an object-> landscape [L3] MRI ( ) scan utilizes a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed images of the organs and tissues within the body. PET ( ) scan uses radiation, or nuclear medicine imaging, to produce 3D color images of the functional processes within the human body. [L5] apparatus [æpəˈrætəs/ˈreɪtəs] a group/combination of instruments, tools, materials for a particular function; equipment; fire-fighting ~ - systematic organization of activities, functions, processes for a specific goal; organization, system; digestive ~, government ~
[P2-L14] adrenaline [əˈdrɛnəlɪn] a hormone that is secreted by the adrenal medulla in response to stress and increases heart rate, pulse rate, and blood pressure, and raises the blood levels of glucose and lipids. [L15] a spike of an abrupt increase or rise; surge [L17] subroutine a section of a computer program that is stored only once but can be used when required at several different points in the program
[L17] on any given day, at any given moment -> in any given place [P3-L21] contributing editor a writer who regularly contributes articles to newspaper, magazine or online articles, but does not actually edit articles. Often a freelancer. [L25] ant heaps a group of things placed, thrown, or lying one on another; pile; a heap of stones/people [L27] sphere - a three-dimensional closed surface such that every point on the surface is equidistant from the center - particular field of activity; environment: that's out of my~ - globe
[P4-L34] module a self-contained unit or item which itself performs a defined task and can be linked with other such units to form a larger system, spacecraft module [P6-L38] take for granted; accept, believe, assume, presume [L42] by instinct - an inborn pattern of behavior that is characteristic of a species and is often a response to specific environmental stimuli: maternal ~ - a powerful motivation or impulse: ~ shopping/purchase - altruistic instincts in social animals. - an innate capability or aptitude: an ~ for diplomacy
[L44] devise to invent sth new or a new way to do sth; create, come up with, design; to ~ a method
[L46] distinctive; different, unique, original, special; ~ style/color/look -> distinct; apparent, obvious, specific; ~ smell/music/color -> distinguish recognize the difference between two; differentiate, divide, identify; ~ between A and B, ~ A from B [L49] an instant gut reaction [P7-L55] amygdala an almond-shaped part of brain that performs a primary role in the processing of memory, decision-making, and emotional reactions [L58] decode to convert an encoded message, text, digital data into ordinary language/sound/image; ~ encrypted message/password <-> encode [L60] dimmer<- dim (adj) not clear because lack of light; to ~ read (v) make/become dim [P8-L62] traumatic [trəˈmæt ɪk]; frightening/frightful <- trauma [trou-muh/AmE, traw-] a powerful shock that may have long-lasting effects [L62] trigger ; cause to happen; bring about, generate, set off
[L69] oxytocin [ɒksɪˈtoʊsən] a hormone that stimulates contraction of the smooth muscle of the uterus
serotonin [sɛr əˈtoʊnɪn] a neurotransmitter involved in sleep, depression, memory, and other neurological processes.
dopamine [doʊ pəˌmin] a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system to help regulate movement and emotion.
cortisol [ˈkɔrtəsɔl] one of several steroid hormones produced by the adrenal cortex and resembling cortisone
[L69] sojourn [ˈsoʊdʒɜrn] a temporary stay; layover, brief travel, stayover: during his ~ in Paris.
[P9-L75] preoccupations<- preoccupy to occupy beforehand or before others: Thoughts of failure ~ied me. He was too ~ied with his own thoughts. [P10-L84] brings it all alive [L85] sanest <-sane mentally sound, sensible, reasonable ->sanity, insane [P11-L88] instructive: informative, enlightening, useful
- A. Match the definitions -> attach => Q&A 1~6
- to fasten/join one thing to another; ~ sth (to sth)
- to believe sth is important/worth/valuable; ~ importance/significance/value; attribute, allocate
- B. Identify the part of speech-> Find the synonymous
adhere - to stick firmly to sth; attach, unite; - follow rules; comply, obey, observe;
conspicuous easy to see/notice; obvious, apparent, distinct, evident <-> inconspicuous
[L46] distinctive; different, unique, original, special; ~ style/color/look -> distinct; apparent, obvious, specific; ~ smell/music/color -> distinguish recognize the difference between two; differentiate, divide, identify; ~ between A and B, ~ A from B -> distinguished; successful, noble, respectable: ~ speaker/guest, ~ family
obvious – easy to see/understand; It was ~ to everyone that …, ~ reason/annoyance/distress, so ~
-> obviously; certainly, unmistakably, apparently, clearly, definitely; Obviously, …, ~ important
- C. Make a sentence using “Obviously, …” and “it is obvious that …” =>
insight [ˈɪnsaɪt]– ability to see and understand the truth about people/situations; judgement, understanding; of great ~ -> insightful - understanding of what sth is like; the book gives us ~ into …,
☆ Extra Learning Dos and don’ts to preserve your brain power
Chapter 3 #2 Interview with a food scientist about changes in eating habit
- - Listening with Transcript
-> Vocabulary: take it for granted, appetite-appetizer, imply-implication, striking, to some extent
- Pronunciation: Intonation with Questions
- Speaking Skills: Hesitating and Taking Time to Think
- Speaking Practice: Food and Eating Questionnaire
<= Intonation with Questions, Taking time to answer, Elaborate the answer, Echo/Repeat Questions
<= Follow up questions, Mix w-questions and yes/no questions
3: Is there one food that you eat every day? -> If so, what is it?
=> If you are to choose one food or dish to eat every day, what will you choose? How will you eat it?
4: Do you prefer eating out or eating at home? -> What’s your favorite dish/menu/place?
=> your prediction for the change in eating habits in the next ten years especially when;
- the share of the senior citizens become even larger
- the number of children become fewer
- the size of family continue to become smaller
- the percentage of female workers increase.
Unit 5 Reading-1 A Question of Numbers
- Review What do you think-2 five to eight sentences to respond the question:
In general, which people do you think are more helpful to strangers in need: people who live in cities or people who live in small towns? Why?
- Read w/Audio Par.1-> Shadowing Par.1-> Read w/Audio Par.2-4-> Shadowing Par.5,6
- Read for Vocabulary/Expressions: (par.1) (more/most/less/least) likely ~/to do complex composed of many interconnected parts, complicated; ~ highway system, machinery apply to make use of; ~ a theory to a problem, to put to use for a particular purpose; ~ pressure to open a door, to make an application or request; ask: ~ for a job/raise end up to find yourself in a situation you didn’t intend/expect to be in; ~ in prison/-ing/dead
Can we trust AI if we don't know how it works?